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Dr. Tahir Tamer Kumkale

tamer@kumkale.net

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 3 Nisan 2000 Pazartesi 

MİLLİ  MÜCADELE  DÖNEMİ  TÜRK-RUS  İLİŞKİLERİ
TURKISH-RUSSIAN RELATIONS DURING THE PERIOD OF NATIONAL STRUGGLE

Turkish-Russian relations started December the 31 st, 1492 with the letter exchanges between Sultan Bayazıt the two and Great General of Moscow Ivan with the mediation of the Crimean Khan and has today reached its 508 th year.These relations bear momentous importance on the formation of the relations of today and of the future’s, as well as on the peace of the region and world peace. Actually, the Turkish societies’ and states’ relations with Slavic elements dates back as far back as 500 BC. 1492 symbolizes the date when historic relations were officially and regularly set. The Russian History, since its beginning to this date, is the history of proliferation of four essential thoughts transformed to a political system, expansion and growth. Throughout history, naturally, the relations of neighbouring Turks and Russians have been founded on these thoughts. Power and competition struggles, intrigues and propaganda have taken wars and treaties, friendships and enmities into their scope.

The First Phase;comprises the years 1500-1800. The essential philosophy is “ Moscow is the successor of Byzantine . Moscow is the third Rome. Russia will become the ruler of the lands of Rome and Byzantine.” According to this;

- The Black Sea will be passed and go under Russian domination. - Istanbul and its surroundings will be captured by Russian.
- Activity will be realized in the Caucasians and the Caspian Region.

The Second Phase; starts with the slogan “slavizm” and captures the years 1800-1917. The aim is to reach Tzar Peter the Great’s historic will. The basic direction is the road to the warm seas and the Ottoman lands are seen as the only obstacle. According to this;  “ The Slavs living anywhere in Europe and especially in the Balkans are a whole the continuation and development of their being is possible only with the establisment of a Slavic Empire tied to Russia .”

The Third Phase; start with the national struggle period, which is also the topic of this essay, and continues until 1990’s Soviet expansionism marked by “ Marxist-Leninist ” ideology. According to this; “ The being; development and continuation of Russia depend on the destruction of capitalism and imperialism. This principle is valid for the whole of humanity. The improvement of humanity is possible only with the abolition of the exploiting order of capitalism. For this, the governing of the exploited labor over state and social life is required. Russia is the vanguard of a world revolution. Russia’s world domination will be realized with the spread of a Moscow centered communism towards Europe, Africa and Asia and the USA. Thus, Russia’s world domination will come true.”

The Fourth Phase ; started with the stumble of the Marxist-Leninist Regime and the collapse of the Soviet Union in the 1990’s. It continues until today, when the Turkic Republics have gained their independence by the results of the policies of “RESTRUCTURING” and “ GLASNOST”. According to this; “ With PERESTROICA ( restructuring ) ,the interests of Russia have coincied with the interests of the whole of humanity. Russia’s ideal is the association of humanity throughout the world and the establishment a world – states – community.According to this, there is no placefor ideologies in the relations among states and societies. A solution for important problems of humanity, arms race, environmental problems,the struggle against poverty can be possible only by unity.”

No matter the frame of thought,Turks are the primary thteat and Turkey is always the most important rival. The National Struggle Period; comprises the years 1918-1925. During this period, internal and external struggles and restructuring movements are continuing. It is the period when the ancient rooted relations are the most calm, however, with the most extensive results having been achieved. In the first months of the year 1917, the Karensky Goverment was over thrown by the Bolshevik-Communist Party, resulting from nation-wide revolts , Tzar-hood became a history. The second Soviet Congress which assambled 8 November 1918 proclaimed “ the peace be without annexations or reparations ” and “inviting the warring states to end their fights and end of the World War One. ”

According to Brest-Litowsk Agrement of March 3, 1918; Russia withdrew from Bitlis, Van, Erzincan, Erzurum and Trabzon. A referandum was made in the subprovinces Kars - Ardahan – Batum with the outcome of the allegiance of the people to the Ottoman State. According to the 7th article of the Moindros Peace Treaty of 30 October 1918, troops were deployed in the Ottoman capital and various other regions and invasion started. Batum was given to the Georgians, Kars and its surroundings to the Armenians and the Baku region to the English.

During the same time period, Russia was boiling with civil war, anarchy and terror. The allied forces were directly and indirectly supporting anti-goverment actions and movements. Russia’s main task was to put an end to internal struggles. Ottoman leaders took advantage of these important events.Firstly,they prevented Armenian expansion in the East, pushing the border to where it was before “ the 93 War”. Turkish war of independence was waged against captalism and imperialist forces. The new regime in Russia and communist movements and efforts to establish the system selected capitalism and imperialism as the main target and put down the rules in order to fight them in every aspect. England and France saw the developments in their old ally Russia as a serious threat and supported the anti-regime movements wholly. In this respect, Turkey and Russia were fighting against the same enemy. Both sides saw the best as cooperation, mutual support, aid and solidarity. Relations improved, there were two important decisional phases ahead of Turkey. The first one was to gain the support of the allied forces against the Bolshevik Russian expansion towards South of Caucasia. The second one was to gain the support of the Bolsheviks against the invasion of Anatolia by the Allied forces.

Turkey’s greatest concern on the opening days of the Turkish Grand National Assembly was the possibility of an English. Russian agreement that could prevent a Turkish-Russian cooperation, In order for this not to happen, there had to be a direct contact. So bilateral relations started in June 2, 1920 with the letter of Soviet Foreign Minister Cicerin. The Turkey-Soviet Friendship and Brotherhood Agreement of August 24, 1920 was signed March 16,1921 in Moscow. Before this agreement, “Turkey-Armenian Peace Treaty” was signed with the Armenians in Gümrü, in December 2, 1920. Thus , Eastern Anatolia had been taken under control .This enabled The Turkish Grand National Assembly to remove its biggest military force under Kazım Karabekir Pasha’s command to Western Greek front. The official recognition of an important country such as Russia of the Turkish Grand National Assembly Government and the National Pact with a Peace treaty was a political victory towards independence.

The Turkish- Russian relations starting March 16, 1921 with the Moscow agreement initiated friendship that was to be the benefit of both countries. Turkey, which ended its just national struggle with Lausanne guaranteed continuation of the 1921- spirit with the “Turkey Soviet Union friendship Neutrality Agreement” of 1925.

Atatürk has clarified his opinions to his deputies about communism on the date of January 1921 in Turkish Grand National Assembly in such that way;
 
Dear Sirs;
There are two ways for preventing The Communism;First, to assail those who say they are the communists, Other way; Not to unload men to the land, coming from Russia by ship,To take Hard Measures for men coming by land as deporting.

To put these ways; into practice, is appeared useless because of this two reasons; First, The Soviet Republic of Russia, with whom we plan to get in touch, is completely in Communist Regime. If we take hard measures so, it’s necessary to cut the Relations down with Russia. However, we wish to communicate, to found and make reciprocal help with Russia due to the another plenty of Political reasons. So, we are obliged not to despise and slander the principles of a Nation and Government we want to make amity. Therefore we abstained from taking
hard measures.

As you know, if no thought trend is used against one’s thoughts by using thougts, it means there is no useful response about it. Thoughts cannot be rejected by force. If you resist by doing force to any thought trend instead of giving opposite thought, you never (cannot) destroy that thought. On the contrary, you make it stronger and stronger.The best effect against thought trends, is to give response by using a new thought trend.

So to give the public opinion knowledge, is appeared to be the most useful way.Society and Turkish Nation should be given information by the government that the Communistic thought and its practices are not suitable for our Nation and Islamic Principles.While doing this incoming measures should be taken which prohibit to enter a
dangerous state spreading in Turkish Society.


Dr. Tahir Tamer Kumkale
3 Nisan 2000 Pazartesi

 
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